|The Book of Exodus||The Book of Numbers|
"What, then, is the offering? what the priest? what the offerer? Christ is the offering, Christ is the priest, Christ is the offerer. Such and so manifold are the relations in which Christ has stood for man and to man, that no one type or set of types can adequately represent the fulness of them. Thus we have many distinct classes of types, and further variations in these distinct classes, each of which gives us one particular view of Christ, either in His character, or in His work, or person. But see Him as we may for sinners, He fills more than one relation. This causes the necessity of many emblems. First He comes as offerer, but we cannot see the offerer without the offering, and the offerer is Himself the offering, and He who is both offerer and offering is also the priest. As man under the law, our substitute, Christ, stood for us towards God as offerer. He took 'the body prepared for Him' as His offering, that in it and by it He might reconcile us to God. Thus, when sacrifice and offering had wholly failed, -- when at man's hand God would no more accept them, -- 'then said He, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me, I delight to do Thy will, O God: yea, Thy law is within my heart.' Thus His body was His offering: He willingly offered it; and then as priest He took the blood into the holiest. As offerer, we see Him man under the law, standing our substitute, for us to fulfil all righteousness. As priest, we have Him presented as the mediator, Godís messenger between Himself and Israel. While as the offering He is seen the innocent victim, a sweet savour to God, yet bearing the sin and dying for it.
"Thus in the selfsame type the offerer sets forth Christ in His person, as the One who became man to meet Godís requirements: the offering presents Him in His character and work, as the victim by which the atonement was ratified; while the priest gives us a third picture of Him, in His official relation, as the appointed mediator and intercessor. Accordingly, when we have a type in which the offering is most prominent, the leading thought will be Christ the victim. On the other hand, when the offerer or priest predominates, it will respectively be Christ as man or Christ as mediator." (Jukes, Law of the Offerings, pp. 44-45.)
Leviticus 1:2-3. What Made an Animal Acceptable for an Offering to God?The Hebrew word translated "without blemish" means to be sound or whole. In addition to this requirement, all sacrificial animals had to meet two other requirements. They had to be of the category that the Lord declared clean (see Leviticus 11), and they also had to be from domesticated herds and flocks (see Leviticus 1:2).
"In the clean animals, which he had obtained by his own training and care, and which constituted his ordinary live-stock, and in the produce obtained through the labour of his hands in the field and vineyard, from which he derived his ordinary support, the Israelite offered ... the food which he procured in the exercise of his God-appointed calling, as a symbol of the spiritual food which endureth unto everlasting life [see John 6:27; 4:34], and which nourishes both soul and body for imperishable life in fellowship with God ... In this way the sacrificial gifts acquire a representative character, and denote the self-surrender of a man, with all his labour and productions, to God." (Keil and Delitzsch, Commentary, 1:2:275-76.)
This offering was to be "voluntary" (Leviticus 1:3). It was not forced, but served as a free expression of gratitude on the part of the individual. Anything less would violate a basic principle of free will offerings (see Moroni 7:6-10).
Leviticus 1:3. Which of the three kinds of offerings is described?
Leviticus 1:3. Was the Burnt Offering Actually Slain at the Door of the Tabernacle?To assist Israel in overcoming idolatry, the Lord specified that offerings be sacrificed in one place, "at the door of the tabernacle" (v. 3). This place was specified because it was here (technically, a few yards in front of the door of the tabernacle or temple) that the altar stood on which the sacrifice or a portion of it would be burned. (Note: This verse and the following verses describe the burnt offerings. Other offerings had different requirements. For a complete description of all the various offerings, see the accompanying chart, which was adapted from Edward J. Brandt, "Sacrifices and Offerings of the Mosaic Law," Ensign, Dec. 1973, pp. 50-51.)
Leviticus 1:4. Why were "sacrifices of animals without blemish" made?
Leviticus 1:5. Who was to perform the sacrificial rites?
Leviticus 2. What Was the Meat Offering?The word translated "meat offering" is a Hebrew word meaning "a gift" (Wilson, Old Testament Word Studies, s.v. "meat," p. 271). Used in a sacrificial sense, the word refers to a gift of grain, flour, or breads. (One meaning of the word meat is "food.") Through this offering the individual acknowledged God as the giver of all things and surrendered what had been designated (that is, the fruit of the field) in supplication for power to fulfill his duty. Wheat, or products made from wheat, with the addition of oil, frankincense, and salt constituted each offering (see vv. 1, 13). In each case the wheat had to be prepared in some way. "Fine flour" (vv. 4, 5, 14) required the greatest effort in an age when grain was ground mostly by hand. Thus, the offererís time, symbolic of his whole life, was invested in the offering.
The bringing together of the oil, frankincense, and grain in this offering is instructive (see v. 1). Oil was used in the scriptures to symbolize the Holy Ghost (see D&C 45:56-57), grain to symbolize the word of God (see Mark 4:14), and frankincense to symbolize prayer (see Revelation 8:3). As man was meant to live physically by eating bread, so too was he meant to live spiritually in Christ by partaking of the word and Spirit of the Lord through prayer.
Only a portion of the offering was burned (see Leviticus 2:2, 9). This requirement was true of all the offerings except the sin offering and burnt offering. The remaining portion became the property of the priests, and they were allowed to share it with members of their families (see vv. 3, 10). In this way the priesthood was supported by the Lord during their time of service.
Those portions of the sacrifice that were burned were designated as "holy," whereas those portions to be eaten were designated as "most holy" (vv. 3, 10). The distinction appears to be a safeguard. Little could happen to the portion of the sacrifice that was burned, but the portion that was left, if not carefully guarded, could be desecrated.
The oblation of first fruits was not a sacrifice but rather a gift of thanks and praise to the Lord for the harvest (see v. 12). If the offerer wanted to use a portion of this oblation as a meat offering, the Lord designated how it was to be done (see vv. 14-16).
Leviticus 2:1-16. What is described in Leviticus 2?
Leviticus 2:1-13. What ingredients did the meat offering consist of?
Leviticus 2:3-10. What portion of the meat offering was "a thing most holy of the offerings of the Lord made by fire"? (Leviticus 2:3)
Leviticus 2:11. What ingredients were prohibited?
Leviticus 3:1-14. How were peace offerings made?
Leviticus 3:17. What was Israel forbidden to eat?
Leviticus 4:2. What Does It Mean to "Sin through Ignorance"?The Hebrew word chata't, used for this sacrifice, comes from a root meaning "to miss, not to hit the mark" or "to stumble and fall" (Wilson, Old Testament Word Studies, s.v. "sin," p. 395). The word interpreted "ignorance" means "to err" (s.v "ignorance," p. 225). Thus, the sins which were expiated by this offering were those committed by mistake, error, or oversight; that is, sins committed unintentionally. In other words, this offering covered those sins which came from weakness of the flesh as opposed to those committed deliberately while in a state of rebellion. This sacrifice illustrates the fact that sin, even when not deliberately committed, places one under the demands of justice. The prophet-king Benjamin explained, "For behold, and also [Christ's] blood atoneth for the sins of those ... who have died not knowing the will of God concerning them, or who have ignorantly sinned" (Mosiah 3:11).
For this offering, the offerer was allowed to bring many different kinds of offerings (see Leviticus 4:3, 13-14, 22-23, 27-28; 5:6-7, 11-12). From your understanding of the law of Moses, why do you think the Lord allowed so many acceptable offerings to expiate sins of ignorance?
Leviticus 4:2. What kind of sin did this offering atone for?
Leviticus 4:3. How were sinners forgiven?
Leviticus 4:3.5. What did the priests do through the sin offering?
Leviticus 5:1-6. What were the people to do regarding their sins?
Leviticus 5:14-19; 6:1-7. What Is the Difference between a Sin Offering and a Trespass Offering?The Book of Mormon prophets taught that those who have not been "born of the Spirit" or "changed from their carnal and fallen state" (Mosiah 27:24-25) are in "rebellion against God" and indeed are "an enemy to God" (Mosiah 16:5; see also 3:19). This fallen or sinful nature, termed the "natural man" (Mosiah 3:19) is a serious state. This "natural man" must be considered in an attempt to distinguish between the sin offering and the trespass offering.
"With our shortsightedness, our inability to see beyond the surface, we naturally look at what man does rather than at what he is; and while we are willing to allow that he does evil, we perhaps scarcely think that he is evil. But God judges what we are as well as what we do; our sin, the sin in us, as much as our trespasses. In His sight sin in us, our evil nature, is as clearly seen as our trespasses, which are but the fruit of that nature ...
"Now the distinction between the Sin and Trespass offerings is just this: -- one is for sin in our nature [i.e., the "natural man"] the other for the fruits of it. And a careful examination of the particulars of the offerings is all that is needed to make this manifest. Thus in the Sin-offering no particular act of sin is mentioned, but a certain person is seen standing confessedly as a sinner: in the Trespass-offering certain acts are enumerated, and the person never appears. In the Sin-offering I see a person who needs atonement, offering an oblation for himself as a sinner: in the Trespass-offering I see certain acts which need atonement, and the offering offered for these particular offences." (Jukes, Law of the Offerings, pp. 148-49.)
Leviticus 5:6-19. How did they obtain forgiveness?
Leviticus 6:1-7. How were the people to obtain forgiveness for their sins?
Leviticus 6:12-13. What was the regulation concerning the fire on the altar?The first fire on the first altar made under Moses' direction was kindled by direct action of Jehovah (see Leviticus 9:23-4). It was the duty of the priest to keep this fire burning, symbolizing the continuation of the covenant which made the ordinance of sacrifice everlastingly valid. The fire symbolized the cleansing power of the Holy Spirit, which is never extinguished.
Leviticus 6:23, 30. Which two offerings could not be eaten?
Leviticus 7. List five things Israel was to do through sacrifice.
Leviticus 7:1. What laws are set forth in Leviticus 7?
Leviticus 7:11-7. Why Did the Offerer Partake of the Peace Offering?Once the fat, kidneys, breast, and upper part of the back leg were removed, the rest of the animal was returned to the offerer. Upon returning home, he used it in preparing a feast to which his family, friends, and the poor were invited. Since the sacrifice served as a major part of this feast, birds were not acceptable because they provided too little meat. This feast became a holy covenant meal participated in with joy and thanksgiving because it represented fellowship with the Lord. The earthly food symbolized the spiritual power through which the Lord satisfied and refreshed His Saints and led them to victory over all their enemies.
All participants shared in this offering. The Lord specified His portion, that which was given to the priest, and that shared by the family. Therefore, all enjoyed the spirit of the fellowship meal just as all partake of the work of Christ in bringing about salvation to the faithful and victory over death and hell.
To knowingly partake of the peace offering while in a condition of uncleanliness was grounds for excommunication (see v. 21). One cannot be in a state of sin and be at peace with God at the same time.
Leviticus 7:28-34. What Is the Heave Offering and the Wave Offering?The Lord declared that two portions of the animal would be the priest'. The first was the heave offering, which was the upper portion of the back leg. The term heave means, in Hebrew, "to lift off or remove." This portion was given by the offerer to the priest in payment for his assistance. The "wave breast" (v. 34) was the brisket or lower chest. This choice piece of meat, along with the fat and kidneys, was the Lord's. The brisket was presented to the Lord through the act of waving. To do this the priest placed the offering in the hands of the offerer and then placed his own hands beneath it. They then moved the brisket in a horizontal motion toward the altar (symbolically transferring to the Lord) and then back again, representing God's acceptance of the offering and its transference to his servant the priest. (See Keil and Delitzsch, Commentary, 1:2:330.)
Leviticus 7:29. How was Israel to worship?
Leviticus 8:11-13. What happened to Aaron and his sons?
Leviticus 8:14-30. What did Moses and Aaron do?
Leviticus 9:8. What did Aaron do?
Leviticus 9:23. What appeared to all the people?
Leviticus 9:24. What consumed the offerings on the altar?
Leviticus 10:1. Who were Nadab and Abihu?
Leviticus 10:1-7. What Was the Strange Fire Offered by Aaron's Sons?The Hebrew word translated "strange" means "to be alien ... as opposed to that which is holy and legitimate" (Wilson, Old Testament Word Studies s.v. "strange," p. 422). Thus, the idea is not that the fire was strange or unusual, but that these two sons of Aaron engaged in an unauthorized form of worship. Whether they took fire (actually hot coals) from another source than the great altar which God Himself had kindled (see Leviticus 9:24), or whether they used an incense not prepared as specified (see Exodus 30:34-37) is not clear from the account. But after revealing the proper preparation of the incense, the Lord warned, "Whosoever shall make like unto that, to smell thereto, shall even be cut off from his people" (Exodus 30:38). Aaron's other sons were forbidden to officially mourn the death of their brothers, for this action would imply that the Lord had been unjust in the punishment (see Leviticus 10:6).
Leviticus 10:2. What happened to them? Why?
Leviticus 11:2-43. What did the Lord reveal to Moses and Aaron? (See also Bible Dictionary, p. 646, s.v. "Clean and Unclean")
Leviticus 11:24, 31. Why Did Contact with a Dead Body Cause One to Be Unclean?The law specified that contact with the carcass of an unclean animal (or a clean animal that had died in some way other than by proper slaughter) caused one to be unclean. "The human corpse was the most defiling according to Old Testament regulations. In all probability it epitomized for the people of God the full gravity and ultimate consequences of sin." (Douglas, New Bible Dictionary, s.v. "clean and unclean," p. 239.) That the unclean person was barred from temple service and fellowship with other Israelites seems to bear out this assumption. The symbolism suggests that contact with sin leaves one tainted, and from this taint there had to be a period of cleansing. This period was symbolized by the restrictions placed on the individual "until the even" (v. 24), at which time the new Israelite day began.
Leviticus 11:44-45. What did the Lord command Israel to be?
Leviticus 12:2-8. What law did the Lord reveal in Leviticus 12?
Leviticus 12:2-5. How many days was the purification process for women who bore a male child? a female child?
Leviticus 12:5-6. Why Was the Period of Uncleanness Longer When a Female Child Was Born?Many things in the Mosaic law are puzzling at first but become clear and understandable upon further investigation. This question, however, is one that seems to have no key at present for its correct interpretation. An obvious implication, quickly taken up by some modern critics, is that this rule is a reflection of the inferior status of women anciently, a status which they regard as supported by the law. This conclusion is fallacious for two reasons. First, elsewhere in the law and the Old Testament, there is evidence that women had high status and their rights were protected. In fact, "women appear to have enjoyed considerably more freedom among the Jews than is now allowed them in western Asia" (Fallows, Bible Encyclopedia, s.v. "woman," 3:1733; this reference includes numerous scriptural references in support of this statement; see also Hastings, ed., Dictionary of the Bible, s.v. "woman," pp. 976-77). Second, these laws were not the product of men's attitudes but were direct revelation from the Lord. God does not view women as inferior in any way, although the roles of men and women are different. Speculation on why the Lord revealed different requirements for ceremonial purifying after the birth of male and female children is pointless until further revelation is received on the matter.
Leviticus 13:1-59. What laws and tokens were revealed in Leviticus 13?
Leviticus 13:45-46. What happened to a leper "in whom the plague [was]?" (Leviticus 13:45)
Leviticus 14:1-57. What laws, rites, and sacrifices were revealed in Leviticus 14?
Leviticus 15:1-33. What laws, rites, and sacrifices were revealed in Leviticus 15?
Leviticus 16:1-25. What did the Lord instruct Moses to tell Aaron?
Leviticus 16:17, 30. Why were the sacrifices to be offered?
Leviticus 16:29-34. What was to happen on the day of atonement?
Leviticus 17:3-6. To whom were the sacrifices to be offered?
Leviticus 17:7. "After Whom They Have Gone a Whoring"The concept that Israel went "a whoring" after false gods is a common one in the scriptures and continues the metaphor that Jehovah was the husband to whom Israel was married. Isaiah said, "For thy Maker is thine husband; the Lord of hosts is his name" (Isaiah 54:5). When Israel looked to false gods, she was unfaithful to the marriage relationship she had with the true God, and thus was depicted as playing the part of a prostitute.
Jeremiah wrote: "Hast thou seen that which backsliding Israel hath done? she is gone up upon every high mountain and under every green tree, and there hath played the harlot ... And I saw, when for all the causes whereby backsliding Israel committed adultery I had put her away, and given her a bill of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah feared not, but went and played the harlot also. And it came to pass through the lightness of her whoredom, that she defiled the land, and committed adultery with stones and with stocks." (Jeremiah 3:6, 8-9.)
In New Testament times, the same figurative imagery was used when the Church of Jesus Christ was depicted as the bride of Christ (see 2 Corinthians 11:2; Revelation 19:7-8; 21:2, 9).
So, in the scriptures, idolatry was often depicted as spiritual adultery. One Bible scholar added this insight to the phrase "gone a whoring":
"Though this term is frequently used to express idolatry, yet we are not to suppose that it is not to be taken in a literal sense in many places in Scripture, even where it is used in connection with idolatrous acts of worship. It is well known that Baal Peor and Ashtaroth were worshipped with unclean rites; and that public prostitution formed a grand part of the worship of many deities among the Egyptians, Moabites, Canaanites, Greeks, and Romans." (Clarke, Bible Commentary, 1:567.)
Leviticus 17:11. What was required for an atonement for sins?
Leviticus 18:6-18. Which marriages were forbidden?
Leviticuss18:20-23. What is an abomination to the Lord?
Leviticus 18:24-29. What will happen to nations that practice sexual abominations?
Leviticus 19:1. List four things Israel was commanded to do.
Leviticus 19:26-29. What did the Lord forbid Israel to do?
Leviticus 19:35-36. What Are "Meteyards," "Ephahs," and "Hins"?A meteyard signified such Hebrew measures of length as the reed, the span, and the cubit, while the ephah and the hin were measures of volume. By specifying both kinds of measures, the Lord clearly taught that honesty in all transactions was required. (See Bible Dictionary, s.v. "weights and measures.")
Leviticus 20:1-2 List six actions that were punishable by death. (See also Bible Dictionary, p. 604, s.v. "Adultery")
Leviticus 20:22-24. "Ye Shall Not Walk in the Manners of the Nation, Which I Cast Out"When the Jaredites were brought to the land of promise, the Lord warned them that if they did not worship the God of the land, who is Jesus Christ, they would be "swept off" (Ether 2:10). Lehi's colony was also warned that they would occupy the promised land only on condition of obedience; otherwise, they too would be "cut off" (1 Nephi 2:21; see also v. 20). The Israelites were warned that if they were not willing to separate themselves from the world, the land would "spue" them out (Leviticus 20:22). Nephi told his brothers that the only reason Israel was given the land and the Canaanites driven out was that the Canaanites "had rejected every word of God, and they were ripe in iniquity" (1 Nephi 17:35). Because of their extreme wickedness God required Israel to "utterly destroy them" (Deuteronomy 7:2; for further discussion about why God required the Canaanites to be destroyed). Nephi asked, "Do you suppose that our fathers [the Israelites] would have been more choice than they [the Canaanites] if they had been righteous? I say unto you, Nay." (1 Nephi 17:34.) The same message was clearly revealed to Israel. The Canaanites were cast out because of their wickedness. Either Israel would remain separated from that wickedness, or they would suffer the same consequence.
Leviticus 21:1-6. What was the prohibition concerning dead persons and priests? and the high priest?
Leviticus 21:7-8. What were the restrictions about marriage for priests? for the high priest?
Leviticus 22:3. What was the penalty for an unclean person who ate of the "holy things"? (Leviticus 22:3)
Leviticus 22:6-7. What procedure would purify an unclean person?
Leviticus 22:21. What type of animals were to be sacrificed?
Leviticus 23:3. What was Israel to do each weekly Sabbath?
Leviticus 23:5-34. List the six feasts Israel was to observe.
Leviticus 23:27To afflict the soul means to be humble or submissive to the Lord. The Hebrew term carries with it the idea of discipline. Therefore, on these days, Israelites were to devote themselves completely to the Lord in fasting and prayer.
Leviticus 23:37The offerings specified for the feast days were all voluntary. These were the times to celebrate and freely show one's gratitude to the Lord.
Leviticus 24:2-4. What was the regulation about the lamps in the tabernacle?
Leviticus 24: 5-9. What holy offering to the Lord were the priests allowed to eat? (See Leviticus 24:5a)
Leviticus 24:14-16. What did the Lord command be done to the person who "blasphemed the name of the Lord and cursed"? (Leviticus 24:11)
Leviticus 24:17-22. Was the Law of Moses Really an Eye for an Eye?This passage has come to be regarded by many as the substance and summary of the Mosaic law: "eye for eye, tooth for tooth" (v. 20). This misunderstanding is unfortunate because it makes the law appear cold, unbending, and revengeful. This misconception has resulted from a failure to distinguish between the social law and the criminal law. The social law was based on love and concern for one's neighbor (see Leviticus 19:18). The criminal law was not outside that love, but was made to stress absolute justice. Even then, however, three things must be noted about this eye-for-an-eye application:
"First, it was intended to be a law of exact justice, not of revenge. Secondly, it was not private vengeance, but public justice. Thirdly, by excluding murder from the crimes for which ransom is permissible (Nu. 35:31f.) it makes it probable that compensation for injuries was often or usually allowed to take the form of a fine." (Guthrie and Motyer, Bible Commentary: Revised, p. 164.)
The same law that required just retribution and payment also required a farmer to leave portions of his field unharvested so the poor could glean therein (see Leviticus 19:9-10; 23:22), demanded that the employer pay his hired labor at nightfall rather than wait even until the next day (see 19:13), commanded men, "Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thine heart" (19:17), and summarized the ideal by saying, "Be ye holy" (20:7).
Leviticus 25:4. Which year was to be kept as a Sabbath year?
Leviticus 25:10. Which year was to be one of jubilee?
Leviticus 25:11-35. How are the events of the year of jubilee described?
Leviticus 25:36-37. What was forbidden? (See Bible Dictionary, p. 787, s.v. "Usury")
Leviticus 26:1-13. What would happen to Israel if they kept the commandments?
Leviticus 26:14-39. What would happen to Israel if they did not keep the commandments?
Leviticus 26:40-45. What is required to obtain mercy from the Lord?
Leviticus 27:1-34. What Is Meant by a Man Making a "Singular Vow"?Special vows were a part of the Mosaic law. In that day it was possible for a man or woman to dedicate a person to the Lord, for example, Jephthah's daughter or the child Samuel (see Judges 11:30-31; 1 Samuel 1:11). Here the Lord was saying that when a man made such a vow, the persons involved had to be reckoned as the Lord's and could not be taken by another. A person could also vow (that is, dedicate to the Lord) his personal property. These laws governed the making of such vows. Leviticus 27:30-34. What was Israel commanded to do?